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【doc】历年大学英语六级真题及答案(完整版)(免费下载)
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【doc】历年大学英语六级真题及答案(完整版)(免费下载)
Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)1999年6月
Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.
We sometimes think humans are uniquely vulnerable to anxiety, but stress seems to affect the immune defenses of lower animals too.
有时候我们认为唯有人类容易受到焦虑的伤害,但是压力似乎对免疫力底下的动物也有影响。
In one experiment, for example, behavioral immunologist (免疫学家) Mark Laudenslager, at the University of Denver, gave mild electric shocks to 24 rats.【doc】历年大学英语六级真题及答案(完整版)(免费下载)
在一个试验中,举个例子,dd大学的行为免疫学家MM,对二十四只老鼠进行温和的电刺激。
举个例子,在一个试验中dd大学的行为免疫学家MM,对二十四只老鼠进行轻微温和的电刺激。
Half the animals could switch off the current by turning a wheel in their enclosure, while the other half could not.
一半的老鼠能够通过转动他们笼子里的轮子切断电流,而另外一半却不能。
The rats in the two groups were paired so that each time one rat turned the wheel it protected both itself and its helpless partner from the shock.
Mm把这两组老鼠配对,这样每次只要一只老鼠转动轮子时,就可以使自己和无能为力伙伴免受电击。【doc】历年大学英语六级真题及答案(完整版)(免费下载)
Laudenslager found that the immune response was depressed below normal in the helpless rats but not in those that could turn off the electricity.
Ll发现无能为力的那只老鼠免疫力是低于正常的,但能切断电源的那只不会出现免疫力低下。
What he has demonstrated, he believes, is that lack of control over an event, not the experience itself, is what weakens the immune system.
他认为,他所证明是缺乏掌控一些事情的能力,并不是实验本身,能够削弱免疫系统。
Other researchers agree. Jay Weiss, a psychologist at Duke University School of Medicine,
其他科学家,dd大学医学院的心理学家jj同意上述观点。
has shown that animals who are allowed to control unpleasant stimuli don’t develop sleep disturbances or changes in brain chemistry typical of stressed rats.【doc】历年大学英语六级真题及答案(完整版)(免费下载)
已经证明,被允许控制不快乐刺激的动物不会出现睡眠障碍,大脑里的化学物质没有变化。 这正是情绪紧张的表现。
But if the animals are confronted with situations they have no control over, they later behave passively when faced with experiences they can control.
但是,如果动物面对他不能控制的情况,随后他遇到能够控制的事件就会很被动。
【doc】历年大学英语六级真题及答案(完整版)(免费下载)

Such findings reinforce psychologists’ suspicions that the experience or perception of helplessness is one of the most harmful factors in depression.
这些发现增强心理学家猜疑,无能为力的经历或感知是抑郁情绪中最有害的因素之一。
One of the most startling examples of how the mind can alter the immune response was discovered by chance.
最令人吃惊的例子之一心情是如何改变免疫应答被偶然发现
【doc】历年大学英语六级真题及答案(完整版)(免费下载)
In 1975 psychologist Robert Ader at the University of Rochester School of Medicine conditioned (使形成条件反射) mice to avoid saccharin (糖精) by simultaneously feeding them the sweetener and injecting them with a drug that while suppressing their immune systems caused stomach upsets.
在1975年,rr大学医学院的心理学家aa,通过喂食甜食物,并给他们身体里注入抑制免疫系统的药引起胃不适,使猫拒绝糖精 形成条件反射。
Associating the saccharin with the stomach pains, the mice quickly learned to avoid the sweetener.【doc】历年大学英语六级真题及答案(完整版)(免费下载)
把糖精和胃痛联系起来,猫很快学会了避开甜品。
In order to extinguish this dislike for the sweetener, Ader reexposed the animals to saccharin, this time without the drug, and was astonished to find that those mice that had received the highest amounts of sweetener during their earlier conditioning died.
为了消除对糖精的厌恶,aa在没有用药物的情况下,重新给他喂糖精,惊人地发现这些猫在形成条件反射之前吃糖精最多的,有些反而死了。
He could only speculate that he had so successfully conditioned the rats that saccharin alone now served to weaken their immune systems enough to kill them.
Aa只能这样推测,他成功地是老鼠形成条件反射,现在只用能削弱它免疫系统的糖精就足以使其死亡。
【doc】历年大学英语六级真题及答案(完整版)(免费下载)

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